Adipose tissue (body fat) is how the body stores excess energy from food for use during times of scarcity. Excess adipose tissue can be found in people with obesity, which can be associated with adverse consequences for health.Coordination and Control Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16
The adrenal glands are small glands attached to the top of each kidney. The human body has two adrenal glands that release chemical messengers called hormones into the bloodstream. These hormones travel via the blood to have an action in other parts of the human body.Coordination and Control Key Stage 4 Age 14 - 16
The pituitary gland is a small pea-sized gland that plays a major role in regulating vital body functions and general wellbeing. It is referred to as the body's 'master gland' because it controls the activity of most other hormone-secreting glands.Coordination and Control Key Stage 4 Age 14 - 16
Corticotrophin-releasing hormone is the main element that drives the body's response to stress. It is also present in diseases that cause inflammation. Too much or too little corticotrophin-releasing hormone can have a range of negative effects.Coordination and Control Key Stage 4 Age 14 - 16
Kisspeptin is a protein that is essential for reproductive hormone secretion and fertility. The gene (which provides the blue-print for the kisspeptin protein) was first discovered in 1996 by a group of researchers working in Hershey, Pennsylvania in the USA. It is therefore named after the city's chocolate 'Kisses', which are made in Hershey.Human Reproduction Key Stage 3 Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16
Leptin is a hormone secreted from fat cells that helps to regulate body weight. The name leptin is derived from the Greek word 'leptos' meaning thin. It is sometimes referred to as the 'Fat Controller'.Coordination and Control Health: Non-communicable Diseases Key Stage 3 Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16
Prolactin is a hormone produced in the pituitary gland, named because of its role in lactation. It also has other wide-ranging functions in the body, from acting on the reproductive system to influencing behaviour and regulating the immune system.Human Reproduction Key Stage 4 Age 14 - 16
Relaxin is a hormone produced by the ovary and the placenta with important effects in the female reproductive system and during pregnancy. In preparation for childbirth, it relaxes the ligaments in the pelvis and softens and widens the cervix.Human Reproduction Key Stage 3 Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16
Acromegaly is a condition that develops due to overproduction of growth hormone, usually caused by a benign tumour of the pituitary gland. It leads to an increase in size of the hands and feet, a change in the appearance of the face and enlargement of the internal organs.
Addison’s disease is an endocrine condition where the adrenal glands stop functioning, so that the body no longer produce enough steroid hormones. Treatment is with hormone replacement therapy and some lifestyle adaptations to ensure patients remain well.Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16
Childhood-onset growth hormone deficiency is a condition where the pituitary gland fails to produce enough growth hormone during childhood. With early diagnosis and treatment, children generally achieve relatively normal height and development.
Chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a complex condition that causes long-term, fluctuating, and energy-draining fatigue, which does not improve with rest or sleep.Health: Non-communicable Diseases Key Stage 4 Age 14 - 16
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is an inherited disorder that results in low levels of cortisol and high levels of male hormones, causing development of male characteristics in females, and early puberty in both boys and girls.Human Reproduction Coordination and Control Key Stage 4 Age 14 - 16
Empty sella syndrome is the term used to describe the appearance of a small, shrunken or absent pituitary gland on pituitary imaging. Most patients have no symptoms, and generally no treatment is required. If hormone deficiencies are present, hormone replacement therapy should be considered.
Infertility is when a couple are unable to conceive a child after 12 months of trying (regular intercourse without the use of contraception). After investigation, this may be attributed to reasons identified in the male or female partner. In this article, reasons for infertility that affect the female partner will be discussed.Human Reproduction Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16
Gender identity disorder is where a person is dissatisfied with their biological sex, because they feel that it is different from the gender they feel they should be. This often leads to a desire to change their appearance with hormones or surgery and live in their preferred gender.Human Reproduction Key Stage 4 Age 14 - 16
Klinefelter syndrome is a genetic condition that can only affect boys / men and occurs due to the presence of one (or more) extra X chromosomes. The condition is typically characterised by tall stature, reduced fertility and development of breast tissue (gynaecomastia), although in some men there may be no clinical features other than reduced or absent sperm count.
Male hypogonadism is the result of deficiency of the male sex hormone testosterone. It can lead to loss of sex drive and function, delayed puberty, osteoporosis, and there can also be associated failure of the testes to produce sperm.Human Reproduction Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16
Non-functioning pituitary tumours are the most common benign growths in the pituitary gland. These tumours are usually identified because of impaired vision or hormone deficiencies.Coordination and Control Health: Non-communicable Diseases Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16
Resistance to thyroid hormone is a rare genetic condition where some body tissues do not respond normally to thyroid hormones produced by the thyroid gland. It may be associated with no symptoms or with features of both an overactive and underactive thyroid.Coordination and Control Key Stage 4 Age 14 - 16
Thyroid cancer is the uncontrolled growth of cells in the thyroid gland which may spread to areas around the thyroid and to other parts of the body. Thyroid cancer can affect people of all ages. Most patients are cured by the treatments now available.Health: Non-communicable Diseases Key Stage 4 Age 14 - 16
A toxic thyroid nodule refers to a single nodule in the thyroid gland that releases excessive thyroid hormones. The excess thyroid hormone production is termed ‘hyperthyroidism’ and can causes symptoms of thyrotoxicosis (i.e. due to excess thyroid hormones).Health: Non-communicable Diseases Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16
The increase in prevalence of individuals who are obese or develop metabolic complications like cardiovascular disease, diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing. The development of these diseases is a result of a several of symptoms which are collectively known as metabolic syndrome.
Eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder can influence hormone levels causing physical and psychological problems. Unhealthy eating styles can affect hormones that regulate metabolism, fertility and pregnancy.Health: Non-communicable Diseases
In vitro fertilisation is a fertility treatment which stimulates the ovaries to produce multiple eggs which are collected and fertilised by sperm outside of the body in the laboratory to create embryos. One or two of which are then selected and transferred back to the womb in order to result in pregnancy.Human Reproduction Health: Non-communicable Diseases Age 14 - 16 Key Stage 4
The menstrual cycle is an important process that prepares the body for the possibility of pregnancy. Each stage is driven by reproductive hormones that are regulated by the pituitary gland.Human Reproduction Coordination and Control Key Stage 3 Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16 Age 5 - 7 Age 7 - 11
Ages 10+ students can test the glucose level of various ‘blood’ samples and determine whether or not the person has eaten. They will then correct the blood sugar level by treating with different regulatory ‘hormones’.Coordination and Control Health: Non-communicable Diseases Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16 Age 5 - 7 Age 7 - 11
Pupils make their own ‘body clock medallion’ to take home. They will learn what hormones are involved in some key bodily functions in a 24-hour period. This activity is designed for students aged 8-12 and is a craft activity designed to stimulate discussion around hormonal control of everyday biological processes.Human Reproduction Coordination and Control Health: Non-communicable Diseases Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16 Age 5 - 7 Age 7 - 11
Do you ever feel tired and sluggish, and find yourself putting on a few pounds? Or perhaps you’re anxious, irritable, and no matter how much you eat, you're just not gaining weight? Does Dr Google think your thyroid is to blame for all your woes? Dr Pete Taylor, Professor Annice Mukherjee and Professor Kristien Boelaert are tackling the misinformation online about underactive and overactive thyroid conditions.Human Reproduction Coordination and Control Health: Non-communicable Diseases Any Key Stage
Is type 2 diabetes really a “lifestyle disease”? Why do some people develop diabetes even though they’re eating healthily while many obese people escape the disease? How can your environment shape your diabetes risk before you’re even born? Dr Inês Cebola, Dr Shivani Misra and Dr Lorna Smith are on a myth-busting mission tackling the misconceptions around type 2 diabetes.Coordination and Control Health: Non-communicable Diseases Key Stage 4 Any Key Stage
Do animals recognise when we are feeling the pressure? How can dogs help us when our stress hormones fail? And how has studying stress in horses helped us understand human hormones? Claire Pesterfield, Michelle Sutherland, Dr Clara Wilson and Dr Ruth Morgan let the cat out of the bag as we ask, “Can my pet pick up my stress?”Coordination and Control Health: Non-communicable Diseases Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16
Is humanity approaching a catastrophic decline in fertility. Are hormone-hijacking chemicals to blame for falling sperm counts? Should we be concerned and what can we do about it?Human Reproduction Coordination and Control Health: Non-communicable Diseases Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16 Age 5 - 7 Age 7 - 11
The menopause marks one of the biggest natural shifts in hormones for women and can bring with it a number of unpleasant symptoms. But is there a testosterone-based equivalent in men?Human Reproduction Coordination and Control Health: Non-communicable Diseases Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16 Age 5 - 7 Age 7 - 11
Are there really chemicals inside us that could lead to some age-defying interventions in the future? Could our hormones hold the map to the fountain of youth?Coordination and Control Health: Non-communicable Diseases Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16 Age 5 - 7 Age 7 - 11
Does when you eat affect your body weight? Do meal-timing based diets like intermittent fasting really work? How are your hormones involved and does this new diet fad stand up to scientific scrutiny?Coordination and Control Health: Non-communicable Diseases Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16 Age 5 - 7 Age 7 - 11
Ever wished that you could change your height? We investigate how hormones affect our height destinies, and what they have to do with the legend of the Irish giants.Coordination and Control Health: Non-communicable Diseases Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16 Age 5 - 7 Age 7 - 11
There are chemicals all around us, but can they interfere with our hormones? Endocrine disruptors have been linked with a number of health problems, so for the final episode in the series we look at where these chemicals are found and whether we should be worried.Human Reproduction Coordination and Control Health: Non-communicable Diseases Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16 Age 5 - 7 Age 7 - 11
We all know what it's like to feel stressed, perhaps this year more than most, but what are our stress hormones really doing to our minds and bodies?Human Reproduction Coordination and Control Health: Non-communicable Diseases Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16 Age 5 - 7 Age 7 - 11
Hormones are chemical messengers that regulate all of our body's essential functions for health and survival, including growth, metabolism and reproduction.Human Reproduction Coordination and Control Health: Non-communicable Diseases Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16 Age 5 - 7 Age 7 - 11
1st place winner of the 2023 Student Video Award (undergraduate): Nina Supawaree & Ravi Patel Imperial College LondonHuman Reproduction Coordination and Control Health: Non-communicable Diseases Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16 Age 5 - 7 Age 7 - 11