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Adipose tissue

Adipose tissue (body fat) is how the body stores excess energy from food for use during times of scarcity. Excess adipose tissue can be found in people with obesity, which can be associated with adverse consequences for health.

Coordination and Control Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16

Adrenal glands

The adrenal glands are small glands attached to the top of each kidney. The human body has two adrenal glands that release chemical messengers called hormones into the bloodstream. These hormones travel via the blood to have an action in other parts of the human body.

Coordination and Control Key Stage 4 Age 14 - 16

Hypothalamus

The hypothalamus is a part of the brain that has a vital role in controlling many bodily functions including the release of hormones from the pituitary gland.

Coordination and Control Key Stage 4 Age 14 - 16

Kidneys

The kidneys are specialised organs that ensure unwanted substances and excess water are removed from the bloodstream.

Coordination and Control Key Stage 4 Age 14 - 16

Ovaries

The ovaries produce and release eggs (oocytes) into the female reproductive tract at the mid-point of each menstrual cycle. They also produce the female hormones oestrogen and progesterone and androgens.

Human Reproduction Key Stage 3 Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16

Pancreas

The pancreas is an organ that serves two vital purposes: to aid food digestion and to produce hormones that mainly serve to control levels of energy in the blood.

Coordination and Control Health: Non-communicable Diseases Age 14 - 16 Key Stage 4

Parathyroid glands

The parathyroid glands are situated in the neck and control the levels of calcium in the blood.

Pineal gland

The pineal gland is situated in the middle of the human brain and is the major site of the body's melatonin production.

Pituitary gland

The pituitary gland is a small pea-sized gland that plays a major role in regulating vital body functions and general wellbeing. It is referred to as the body's 'master gland' because it controls the activity of most other hormone-secreting glands.

Coordination and Control Key Stage 4 Age 14 - 16

Placenta

The placenta is a temporary endocrine organ formed during pregnancy, which produces hormones important in the maintenance of a healthy pregnancy and in preparation for labour and breastfeeding.

Human Reproduction Key Stage 3 Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16

Testes

The testes are two oval-shaped male reproductive glands that produce sperm and the hormone testosterone.

Human Reproduction Key Stage 3 Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16

Thyroid gland

The thyroid gland is part of the endocrine system and produces thyroid hormones, which are important for metabolic health.

Coordination and Control Key Stage 3 Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16

Adrenaline

Adrenaline is a hormone released from the adrenal glands and its major action, together with noradrenaline, is to prepare the body for 'fight or flight'.

Coordination and Control Key Stage 4 Age 14 - 16

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is produced by the pituitary gland. Its key function is to stimulate the production and release of cortisol from the cortex (outer part) of the adrenal gland.

Coordination and Control Key Stage 4 Age 14 - 16

Aldosterone

Aldosterone is a steroid hormone secreted by adrenal glands. Its main role is to regulate salt and water in the body, thus having an effect on blood pressure.

Coordination and Control Key Stage 4 Age 14 - 16

Angiotensin

Angiotensin is a protein hormone that causes blood vessels to become narrower. It helps to maintain blood pressure and fluid balance in the body.

Anti-diuretic hormone

Anti-diuretic hormone acts to maintain blood pressure, blood volume and tissue water content by controlling the amount of water and hence the concentration of urine excreted by the kidney.

Coordination and Control Key Stage 4 Age 14 - 16

Anti-Müllerian hormone

Anti-Müllerian hormone is a protein hormone which is important in the development of the reproductive tract in a male foetus and is also produced (before birth) by the testes and ovaries.

Human Reproduction Key Stage 3 Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16

Calcitonin

Calcitonin is a hormone that is produced and released by the C-cells of the thyroid gland. Its biological function in humans is to have a relatively minor role in calcium balance.

Coordination and Control Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16

Cholecystokinin

Cholecystokinin is a gut hormone released after a meal, which helps digestion and reduces appetite.

Corticotrophin-releasing hormone

Corticotrophin-releasing hormone is the main element that drives the body's response to stress. It is also present in diseases that cause inflammation. Too much or too little corticotrophin-releasing hormone can have a range of negative effects.

Coordination and Control Key Stage 4 Age 14 - 16

Cortisol

Cortisol is a steroid hormone that regulates a wide range of processes throughout the body, including metabolism and the immune response. It also has a very important role in helping the body respond to stress.

Coordination and Control Key Stage 4 Age 14 - 16

Dehydroepiandrosterone

Dehydroepiandrosterone is an important precursor hormone, and is the most abundant circulating steroid present in the human body. It has little biological effect on its own but has powerful effects when converted into other hormones such as sex steroids.

Dihydrotestosterone

Dihydrotestosterone, a hormone with powerful androgenic actions, causes the body to mature during puberty and is responsible for many of the physical characteristics associated with adult males.

Human Reproduction Key Stage 3 Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16

Erythropoietin

Erythropoietin is a hormone, produced mainly in the kidneys, which stimulates the production and maintenance of red blood cells.

Follicle stimulating hormone

Follicle stimulating hormone is produced by the pituitary gland. It regulates the functions of both the ovaries and testes. Lack or low levels of it can cause subfertility in both men and women.

Human Reproduction Key Stage 3 Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16

Gastrin

Gastrin is a hormone produced by the stomach, which stimulates gastric motility and the release of gastric acid.

Key Stage 4 Age 14 - 16

Ghrelin

Ghrelin is produced by the stomach. Among its numerous functions, ghrelin increases appetite and stimulates the release of growth hormone.

Health: Non-communicable Diseases Key Stage 4 Age 14 - 16

Glucagon

Glucagon is produced to maintain glucose levels in the bloodstream when fasting and to raise very low glucose levels.

Coordination and Control Key Stage 4 Age 14 - 16

Glucagon-like peptide 1

Glucagon-like peptide 1 is a hormone produced in the gut and released in response to food. It causes reduced appetite and the release of insulin.

Coordination and Control Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16

Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone

Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone is released from the hypothalamus in the brain. It controls the production of luteinising hormone and follicle stimulating hormone from the pituitary gland.

Human Reproduction Key Stage 3 Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16

Growth hormone

Growth hormone is produced by the pituitary gland. It has many functions including maintaining normal body structure and metabolism.

Growth hormone-releasing hormone

Growth hormone-releasing hormone stimulates the secretion of growth hormone, an important regulator of growth, metabolism and body structure.

Human chorionic gonadotrophin

Human chorionic gonadotrophin is a reproductive hormone that is essential for establishing and maintaining early pregnancy.

Human Reproduction Key Stage 3 Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16

Insulin

Insulin is an essential hormone produced by the pancreas. Its main role is to control glucose levels in our bodies.

Coordination and Control Health: Non-communicable Diseases Key Stage 4 Age 14 - 16

Kisspeptin

Kisspeptin is a protein that is essential for reproductive hormone secretion and fertility. The gene (which provides the blue-print for the kisspeptin protein) was first discovered in 1996 by a group of researchers working in Hershey, Pennsylvania in the USA. It is therefore named after the city's chocolate 'Kisses', which are made in Hershey.

Human Reproduction Key Stage 3 Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16

Leptin

Leptin is a hormone secreted from fat cells that helps to regulate body weight.

Coordination and Control Health: Non-communicable Diseases Key Stage 3 Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16

Luteinising hormone

Luteinising hormone is produced by the pituitary gland and is one of the main hormones that control the reproductive system.

Human Reproduction Key Stage 3 Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16

Melanocyte-stimulating hormone

Melanocyte-stimulating hormone describes a group of hormones produced by the pituitary gland, hypothalamus and skin cells. It is important for protecting the skin from UV rays, development of pigmentation and control of appetite.

Melatonin

Melatonin is mainly produced by the pineal gland and although it appears not to be essential for human physiology, it is known to have a range of different effects when taken as a medication.

Coordination and Control Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16

Oestradiol

Oestradiol is an important reproductive hormone that has a wide range of actions in both men and women.

Human Reproduction Key Stage 3 Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16

Oestriol

Oestriol is a hormone made during pregnancy that can be used to measure foetal health and predict when birth may happen.

Human Reproduction Key Stage 4 Age 14 - 16

Oestrone

Oestrone is a hormone produced by the ovaries, adrenal glands and fat. It is one of the major oestrogens in postmenopausal women.

Human Reproduction Key Stage 4 Age 14 - 16

Oxytocin

Oxytocin is a hormone that acts on organs in the body (including the breast and uterus) and as a chemical messenger in the brain controlling key aspects of the female reproductive system including childbirth and lactation.

Coordination and Control Health: Non-communicable Diseases Any Key Stage

Parathyroid hormone

Parathyroid hormone is secreted by the parathyroid glands and is the most important regulator of blood calcium levels.

Peptide YY

Peptide YY is a hormone made in the small intestine. It helps to reduce appetite and limit food intake.

Key Stage 4 Age 14 - 16 Coordination and Control

Progesterone

Progesterone is a hormone released by the corpus luteum in the ovary. It plays important roles in the menstrual cycle and in maintaining the early stages of pregnancy.

Human Reproduction Key Stage 3 Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16

Prolactin

Prolactin is a hormone produced in the pituitary gland, named because of its role in lactation. It also has other wide-ranging functions in the body, from acting on the reproductive system to influencing behaviour and regulating the immune system.

Human Reproduction Key Stage 4 Age 14 - 16

Prostaglandins

The prostaglandins are a group of lipids (fats) made at sites of tissue damage or infection that have actions similar to hormones and are involved in dealing with injury and illness. They control processes such as inflammation, blood flow, the formation of blood clots and the induction of labour.

Human Reproduction Any Key Stage

Relaxin

Relaxin is a hormone produced by the ovary and the placenta with important effects in the female reproductive system and during pregnancy. In preparation for childbirth, it relaxes the ligaments in the pelvis and softens and widens the cervix.

Human Reproduction Key Stage 3 Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16

Somatostatin

Somatostatin is a hormone that inhibits the secretion of several other hormones, including growth hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, cholecystokinin and insulin.

Key Stage 3 Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16

Testosterone

Testosterone is a hormone that is responsible for many of the physical characteristics specific to adult males. It plays a key role in reproduction and the maintenance of bone and muscle strength.

Human Reproduction Key Stage 3 Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16

Thyroid stimulating hormone

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) is produced by the pituitary gland. Its role is to regulate (by stimulating) the production of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland.

Coordination and Control Key Stage 4 Age 14 - 16

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone is produced by the hypothalamus. It plays an important role in the regulation of thyroid gland activity.

Coordination and Control Key Stage 3 Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16

Thyroxine

Thyroxine is the main hormone secreted into the bloodstream by the thyroid gland. It plays vital roles in metabolism, heart and muscle function, brain development, and maintenance of bones.

Triiodothyronine

Triiodothyronine is a thyroid hormone that plays vital roles in the body's metabolic rate, heart and digestive functions, muscle control, brain development and function, and the maintenance of bones.

Vitamin D

Vitamin D is a hormone produced by the kidneys that helps to control the concentration of calcium in the blood and is vital for the development of strong bones.

Coordination and Control Key Stage 3 Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16 Age 7 - 11

Acromegaly

Acromegaly is a condition that develops due to overproduction of growth hormone, usually caused by a benign tumour of the pituitary gland. It leads to an increase in size of the hands and feet, a change in the appearance of the face and enlargement of the internal organs.

Addison's disease

Addison’s disease is an endocrine condition where the adrenal glands stop functioning, so that the body no longer produce enough steroid hormones. Treatment is with hormone replacement therapy and some lifestyle adaptations to ensure patients remain well.

Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16

Amenorrhoea

Amenorrhoea is the term used to describe a lack of 'periods' (menstrual cycles) in women. The management of amenorrhoea depends on the underlying cause.

Carcinoid tumour

Carcinoid tumours are slow-growing tumours that arise from specialised cells that release hormones.

Health: Non-communicable Diseases Key Stage 4 Age 14 - 16

Childhood-onset growth hormone deficiency

Childhood-onset growth hormone deficiency is a condition where the pituitary gland fails to produce enough growth hormone during childhood. With early diagnosis and treatment, children generally achieve relatively normal height and development.

Human Reproduction Coordination and Control Any Key Stage

Myalgic Encephalopathy / Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/ (ME/CFS)

Chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a complex condition that causes long-term, fluctuating, and energy-draining fatigue, which does not improve with rest or sleep.

Health: Non-communicable Diseases Key Stage 4 Age 14 - 16

Circadian rhythm sleep disorders

Circadian rhythm sleep disorders occur when the circadian clock in the brain, which drives daily behavioural and physiological rhythms, is not synchronised with 'real' local time. This can result in abnormal sleep patterns, sleep loss and fatigue.

Coordination and Control Any Key Stage

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is an inherited disorder that results in low levels of cortisol and high levels of male hormones, causing development of male characteristics in females, and early puberty in both boys and girls.

Human Reproduction Coordination and Control Key Stage 4 Age 14 - 16

Craniopharyngioma

Craniopharyngiomas are rare, slow-growing benign brain tumours which most commonly occur above the pituitary gland, but occasionally are found within the bony cup containing the pituitary gland.

Health: Non-communicable Diseases Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16

Cushing's disease

Cushing's disease is the condition resulting from a pituitary tumour secreting excess amounts of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which then stimulates the adrenal glands to release excess amounts of the hormone cortisol.

Health: Non-communicable Diseases Any Key Stage

Cushing's syndrome

Cushing's syndrome is the name given to the collection of signs and symptoms that occur when the body is exposed to too much of the hormone cortisol.

Coordination and Control Health: Non-communicable Diseases Key Stage 4 Age 14 - 16

Delayed puberty

Delayed puberty is defined as no secondary sexual maturation or any sign of puberty by the age of 13 years in girls and 14 years in boys.

Human Reproduction Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16

Diabetes insipidus

Diabetes insipidus is a rare condition caused by a reduction in, or failure to respond to, anti-diuretic hormone. This results in passing large amounts of dilute urine and increased thirst.

Coordination and Control Key Stage 4 Age 14 - 16

Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is a common disorder resulting in high levels of sugar in the blood. It affects a large number of people, with many more people remaining undiagnosed.

Health: Non-communicable Diseases Key Stage 4 Age 14 - 16

Empty sella syndrome

Empty sella syndrome is the term used to describe the appearance of a small, shrunken or absent pituitary gland on pituitary imaging. Most patients have no symptoms, and generally no treatment is required. If hormone deficiencies are present, hormone replacement therapy should be considered.

Endometrial cancer

Endometrial cancer is a form of cancer that originates from the tissue that lines the womb. This tissue is called the endometrium.

Health: Non-communicable Diseases Key Stage 4 Age 14 - 16

Endometriosis

Endometriosis is a condition in women where the lining of the womb grows outside of the womb causing scar tissue and painful monthly periods.

Human Reproduction Key Stage 3 Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16

Familial medullary thyroid cancer

Familial medullary thyroid cancer is a rare inherited form of thyroid cancer.

Health: Non-communicable Diseases Key Stage 4 Age 14 - 16

Female infertility

Infertility is when a couple are unable to conceive a child after 12 months of trying (regular intercourse without the use of contraception). After investigation, this may be attributed to reasons identified in the male or female partner. In this article, reasons for infertility that affect the female partner will be discussed.

Human Reproduction Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16

Gender identity disorder

Gender identity disorder is where a person is dissatisfied with their biological sex, because they feel that it is different from the gender they feel they should be. This often leads to a desire to change their appearance with hormones or surgery and live in their preferred gender.

Human Reproduction Key Stage 4 Age 14 - 16

Gestational diabetes

Gestational diabetes is development of high blood sugar (glucose) levels during pregnancy. Strict blood glucose control in pregnant women improves outcomes for both the mother and child.

Coordination and Control Age 14 - 16 Key Stage 4

Glucagonoma

A glucagonoma is a very rare tumour of the pancreas in which there is an increase in release of the hormone glucagon, causing a characteristic skin rash and raised blood sugar levels.

Health: Non-communicable Diseases Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16

Goitre

Goitre is a general term for an enlarged thyroid gland. Depending on the type of swelling, location, how it affects gland function and how long it has been present, goitre has various effects and is treated in a variety of different ways.

Graves' disease

Graves' disease is an autoimmune thyroid disease. The body produces antibodies against the thyroid gland which can cause it to become overactive, resulting in increased thyroid hormone production and hyperthyroidism.

Hashimoto's disease

Hashimoto's disease is an autoimmune disease that causes inflammation of the thyroid gland and results in a reduction in thyroid hormone levels.

Hirsutism

Hirsutism is the presence of excess male-pattern hair growth in women and is commonly caused by an imbalance of hormones.

Human Reproduction Key Stage 3 Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16

Hypercalcaemia

Hypercalcaemia is the presence of abnormally high calcium levels in the blood.

Hyperthyroidism

Hyperthyroidism is a common condition where the thyroid gland becomes overactive and produces too much thyroid hormone.

Human Reproduction Coordination and Control Health: Non-communicable Diseases

Hypocalcaemia

Hypocalcaemia refers to low calcium levels in the blood. It is most commonly caused by either vitamin D deficiency or diseases of the parathyroid glands causing low parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion.

Coordination and Control Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16

Hypoparathyroidism

Hypoparathyroidism is a rare condition characterised by inadequate parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion from the parathyroid glands, resulting in low calcium levels in the bloodstream.

Coordination and Control Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16

Hypophosphataemia

Hypophosphataemia is the term used to describe low levels of phosphate in the blood. It is most commonly caused by hyperparathyroidism and vitamin D deficiency.

Insulinoma

An insulinoma is a type of tumour that occurs in the pancreas. The tumour secretes too much insulin, which causes blood glucose (sugar) to drop to low levels.

Coordination and Control Key Stage 4 Age 14 - 16

Jet lag

Rapid travel across time zones may lead to jet lag – a range of temporary symptoms occurring because the body's internal (circadian/daily) clock cannot immediately reset.

Coordination and Control Any Key Stage

Klinefelter's syndrome

Klinefelter syndrome is a genetic condition that can only affect boys / men and occurs due to the presence of one (or more) extra X chromosomes. The condition is typically characterised by tall stature, reduced fertility and development of breast tissue (gynaecomastia), although in some men there may be no clinical features other than reduced or absent sperm count.

Male hypogonadism

Male hypogonadism is the result of deficiency of the male sex hormone testosterone. It can lead to loss of sex drive and function, delayed puberty, osteoporosis, and there can also be associated failure of the testes to produce sperm.

Human Reproduction Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16

Menopause

The menopause is the time when menstruation stops because the ovaries stop producing hormones and releasing eggs for fertilisation. This marks the end of a woman's reproductive years.

Human Reproduction Key Stage 3 Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16

Multinodular goitre

Goitre is a general term for an enlarged thyroid gland. Multinodular goitre is where the enlarged thyroid appears with a number of separate lumps (nodules) in the gland.

Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16 Health: Non-communicable Diseases

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is a rare inherited disease, which can result in tumours in the pituitary and parathyroid glands, and pancreas.

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A) is a rare inherited disease causing the development of tumours in the thyroid, adrenal and parathyroid glands.

Health: Non-communicable Diseases Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16

Nelson's syndrome

Nelson's syndrome is the name given to the enlargement of a pituitary gland tumour associated with excess secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone following the surgical removal of both adrenal glands, usually to treat Cushing's disease.

Non-functioning pancreatic NETs

Non-functioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) are tumours that originate in specialised cells of the pancreas.

Non-functioning pituitary tumours

Non-functioning pituitary tumours are the most common benign growths in the pituitary gland. These tumours are usually identified because of impaired vision or hormone deficiencies.

Coordination and Control Health: Non-communicable Diseases Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16

Obesity

Obesity is an excess of calories stored in the form of fat. It is an increasing public health and medical problem associated with reduced quality and length of life.

Health: Non-communicable Diseases Key Stage 4 Age 14 - 16

Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is a bone disorder caused by loss of bone mass, resulting in abnormal bone structure and an increased risk of fracture.

Health: Non-communicable Diseases Key Stage 4 Age 14 - 16

Paget's disease

Paget's disease is a common, chronic bone disorder which may have no symptoms or it may cause pain, deformity and bone fracture. Early diagnosis of symptoms and treatment with medication will help to control Paget's disease.

Paraganglioma

A paraganglioma is a rare type of tumour that forms along major blood vessels and nerves. Paragangliomas can occur in the head, neck, chest or abdomen.

Key Stage 3 Key Stage 4 Any Key Stage

Pituitary apoplexy

Pituitary apoplexy is a medical emergency. It is caused by either a bleed into and/or death of an area of tissue in the pituitary gland. It is usually associated with the presence of a pituitary tumour.

Polycystic ovary syndrome

Polycystic ovary syndrome is a term that covers a spectrum of problems caused by an imbalance in the level of the body's sex hormones (oestrogen and testosterone).

Human Reproduction Key Stage 3 Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16

Prader-Willi syndrome

Prader-Willi syndrome is a genetic disorder leading to excess hunger and obesity, lack of some hormones, developmental delay, learning difficulties and behavioural problems.

Health: Non-communicable Diseases Key Stage 3 Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16

Pre-eclampsia

Pre-eclampsia is a condition that arises during pregnancy in which the expectant mother experiences very high blood pressure and protein in her urine; it can lead to a range of complications.

Human Reproduction Key Stage 4 Age 14 - 16

Premature ovarian insufficiency

Menopause usually happens in women over the age of 45 years, but if the ovaries stop working prematurely (i.e. before the age of 40 years), this is called ‘Premature Ovarian Insufficiency’ (POI).

Human Reproduction

Premenstrual syndrome

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a condition that affects women during the days leading up to her monthly period; it can cause distressing physical and emotional symptoms.

Human Reproduction Any Key Stage

Primary hyperaldosteronism

Primary hyperaldosteronism refers to a condition in which one or both adrenal glands generate too much of a hormone called aldosterone. This causes sodium (salt) retention, leading to high blood pressure.

Primary hyperparathyroidism

Primary hyperparathyroidism is the release of too much parathyroid hormone from the parathyroid glands causing high levels of calcium in the bloodstream.

Health: Non-communicable Diseases Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16

Prolactinoma

A prolactinoma is a benign tumour of the pituitary gland that produces excess amounts of the hormone prolactin. It responds well to medication and surgery is avoidable in the majority of cases.

Human Reproduction Key Stage 4 Age 14 - 16

Resistance to thyroid hormone

Resistance to thyroid hormone is a rare genetic condition where some body tissues do not respond normally to thyroid hormones produced by the thyroid gland. It may be associated with no symptoms or with features of both an overactive and underactive thyroid.

Coordination and Control Key Stage 4 Age 14 - 16

Rickets

Rickets is a condition in children where there is abnormal softening of the bones due to the lack of key minerals. It is also known as osteomalacia in adults.

Health: Non-communicable Diseases Key Stage 4 Age 14 - 16

Secondary hyperparathyroidism

Secondary hyperparathyroidism is the release of increased amounts of parathyroid hormone (hyperparathyroidism), which is an appropriate response to low calcium or vitamin D levels in order to try to bring calcium levels back up to normal.

Sheehan's syndrome

Sheehan's syndrome is a rare condition affecting the pituitary gland that occurs as a result of heavy bleeding during or after childbirth.

Human Reproduction Key Stage 3 Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16

Somatostatinoma

Somatostatinomas are rare neuroendocrine tumours that arise from tumour cells originated from specialised hormone-producing cells in the endocrine pancreas and duodenum (first part of small intestine).

Thyroid cancer

Thyroid cancer is the uncontrolled growth of cells in the thyroid gland which may spread to areas around the thyroid and to other parts of the body. Thyroid cancer can affect people of all ages. Most patients are cured by the treatments now available.

Health: Non-communicable Diseases Key Stage 4 Age 14 - 16

Thyroid eye disease

Thyroid eye disease is an autoimmune condition that affects the eyes causing swelling, inflammation and sometimes visual problems.

Toxic thyroid nodule

A toxic thyroid nodule refers to a single nodule in the thyroid gland that releases excessive thyroid hormones. The excess thyroid hormone production is termed ‘hyperthyroidism’ and can causes symptoms of thyrotoxicosis (i.e. due to excess thyroid hormones).

Health: Non-communicable Diseases Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16

TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma

TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas are slow-growing benign pituitary tumours that produce thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and are a very rare cause of hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid).

Turner syndrome

Turner syndrome is a chromosomal disorder affecting the equivalent of one in 2,500 girls, which may lead to a number of features including short stature, failure to enter puberty and infertility.

Lipodystrophy

Lipodystrophy is a condition in which the amount and/or distribution of adipose tissue (fat tissue) in the body is abnormal. Different types of lipodystrophy cause loss or re-distribution of fat tissue in different patterns.

Metabolic Syndrome

The increase in prevalence of individuals who are obese or develop metabolic complications like cardiovascular disease, diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing. The development of these diseases is a result of a several of symptoms which are collectively known as metabolic syndrome.

foetus

a baby developing in the mother’s womb is called a fetus from 9 weeks after fertilisation. A foetus is attached to the mother by the umbilical cord, through which it receives nutrients and oxygen.

hyperplasia

an increased number of cells, leading to an increase in the size of a tissue or organ. For example in congenital adrenal hyperplasia, there is an enlargement of the adrenal glands as they work harder to try to produce the steroid hormone cortisol.

What is HRT?

Hormone replacement therapy (or HRT) (also known as menopausal hormone therapy; MHT) is the replacement of female sex hormones oestrogen and progesterone in women to control symptoms of the menopause.

Hormones and conservation

The study of animal reproductive systems and regular monitoring of reproductive and stress hormones is important for conservation.

Eating disorders and hormones

Eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, avoidant restrictive food intake disorder and other specified feeding or eating disorders can influence hormone levels causing physical and psychological problems. Eating disorders can affect hormones that regulate metabolism, fertility and pregnancy.

Health: Non-communicable Diseases

Hormones of pregnancy and labour

This article describes hormones that play an important role in pregnancy and labour.

Human Reproduction Key Stage 3 Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16

Hormones and foetal growth

Growth of the foetus during pregnancy is regulated by a balance of hormones.

Human Reproduction Key Stage 3 Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16

In vitro fertilisation treatment (IVF)

In vitro fertilisation is a fertility treatment which stimulates the ovaries to produce multiple eggs which are collected and fertilised by sperm outside of the body in the laboratory to create embryos. One or two of which are then selected and transferred back to the womb in order to result in pregnancy.

Human Reproduction Health: Non-communicable Diseases Age 14 - 16 Key Stage 4

Menstrual cycle

The menstrual cycle is an important process that prepares the body for the possibility of pregnancy. Each stage is driven by reproductive hormones that are regulated by the pituitary gland.

Human Reproduction Coordination and Control Key Stage 3 Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16 Age 5 - 7 Age 7 - 11

Hormones in puberty

Puberty is when a child experiences physical and emotional changes that occur as their body begins to develop and change, transitioning into adulthood.

Human Reproduction Coordination and Control Any Key Stage

What are clinical trials?

A clinical trial is the name given to the process whereby the safety of medical treatments for use on humans is assessed.

Testing blood sugar level

Ages 10+ students can test the glucose level of various ‘blood’ samples and determine whether or not the person has eaten. They will then correct the blood sugar level by treating with different regulatory ‘hormones’.

Coordination and Control Health: Non-communicable Diseases Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16 Age 5 - 7 Age 7 - 11

Make your own body clock

Pupils make their own ‘body clock medallion’ to take home. They will learn what hormones are involved in some key bodily functions in a 24-hour period. This activity is designed for students aged 8-12 and is a craft activity designed to stimulate discussion around hormonal control of everyday biological processes.

Human Reproduction Coordination and Control Health: Non-communicable Diseases Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16 Age 5 - 7 Age 7 - 11

How can future technology help my hormones?

Could 3D printed pancreases be the cure for type 1 diabetes? Will AI take over in the IVF clinic? How and why have researchers created a remote controlled adrenal gland? Simon Hanassab, Dr Vicky Salem and Professor Polina Anikeeva are separating science fact from science fiction and seeing how future technology could solve today’s hormone problems.

Human Reproduction Coordination and Control Health: Non-communicable Diseases Any Key Stage

Is my soya latte messing with my hormones?

Should I be concerned about growth hormones in a cow's milk cappuccino? Are the plant oestrogens in a soya latte affecting my risk of cancer? Will almond milk damage my thyroid?  Professor Tim Key and Dr Sarah Bath are spilling the tea (milk, no sugar) and looking at the hormonal impact of plant and cow’s milks.

Human Reproduction Coordination and Control Health: Non-communicable Diseases Any Key Stage

Have I got a thyroid problem?

Do you ever feel tired and sluggish, and find yourself putting on a few pounds? Or perhaps you’re anxious, irritable, and no matter how much you eat, you're just not gaining weight? Does Dr Google think your thyroid is to blame for all your woes? Dr Pete Taylor, Professor Annice Mukherjee and Professor Kristien Boelaert are tackling the misinformation online about underactive and overactive thyroid conditions.

Human Reproduction Coordination and Control Health: Non-communicable Diseases Any Key Stage

Is my diabetes my fault?

Is type 2 diabetes really a “lifestyle disease”? Why do some people develop diabetes even though they’re eating healthily while many obese people escape the disease? How can your environment shape your diabetes risk before you’re even born? Dr Inês Cebola, Dr Shivani Misra and Dr Lorna Smith are on a myth-busting mission tackling the misconceptions around type 2 diabetes.

Coordination and Control Health: Non-communicable Diseases Key Stage 4 Any Key Stage

Can my pet pick up my stress?

Do animals recognise when we are feeling the pressure? How can dogs help us when our stress hormones fail? And how has studying stress in horses helped us understand human hormones? Claire Pesterfield, Michelle Sutherland, Dr Clara Wilson and Dr Ruth Morgan let the cat out of the bag as we ask, “Can my pet pick up my stress?”

Coordination and Control Health: Non-communicable Diseases Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16

Are my hormones making me horny?

What’s the difference between sexual desire and arousal? How does the contraceptive pill affect your sex drive? Which hormone has recently been found to boost sexual arousal in both men and women?

Human Reproduction Key Stage 4 Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16

Can I hack my hormones to improve my mood?

Do happy hormones exist? Is there a chemical recipe for improving your mood and is oxytocin really the biological basis of love?

Coordination and Control Health: Non-communicable Diseases Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16 Age 5 - 7 Age 7 - 11

Is there really a fertility crisis?

Is humanity approaching a catastrophic decline in fertility. Are hormone-hijacking chemicals to blame for falling sperm counts? Should we be concerned and what can we do about it?

Human Reproduction Coordination and Control Health: Non-communicable Diseases Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16 Age 5 - 7 Age 7 - 11

Menopause vs. manopause – are they equivalent?

The menopause marks one of the biggest natural shifts in hormones for women and can bring with it a number of unpleasant symptoms. But is there a testosterone-based equivalent in men?

Human Reproduction Coordination and Control Health: Non-communicable Diseases Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16 Age 5 - 7 Age 7 - 11

Can I hack my hormones to beat ageing?

Are there really chemicals inside us that could lead to some age-defying interventions in the future? Could our hormones hold the map to the fountain of youth?

Coordination and Control Health: Non-communicable Diseases Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16 Age 5 - 7 Age 7 - 11

Does when I eat affect my weight?

Does when you eat affect your body weight? Do meal-timing based diets like intermittent fasting really work? How are your hormones involved and does this new diet fad stand up to scientific scrutiny?

Coordination and Control Health: Non-communicable Diseases Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16 Age 5 - 7 Age 7 - 11

Will taking hormones make me taller?

Ever wished that you could change your height? We investigate how hormones affect our height destinies, and what they have to do with the legend of the Irish giants.

Coordination and Control Health: Non-communicable Diseases Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16 Age 5 - 7 Age 7 - 11

Are everyday chemicals harming my health?

There are chemicals all around us, but can they interfere with our hormones? Endocrine disruptors have been linked with a number of health problems, so for the final episode in the series we look at where these chemicals are found and whether we should be worried.

Human Reproduction Coordination and Control Health: Non-communicable Diseases Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16 Age 5 - 7 Age 7 - 11

Is modern life overloading our stress levels?

We all know what it's like to feel stressed, perhaps this year more than most, but what are our stress hormones really doing to our minds and bodies?

Human Reproduction Coordination and Control Health: Non-communicable Diseases Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16 Age 5 - 7 Age 7 - 11

Should we have the steroid Olympics?

Doping scandals are a regular feature in sporting events, but how do the hormones involved boost performance and why are they banned? Plus, a short history of doping.

Coordination and Control Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16 Age 5 - 7 Age 7 - 11

Should I take a vitamin D supplement?

Vitamin D, the hormone in disguise, is currently in the spotlight as the world's favourite supplement, but is it really all it's cracked up to be?

Coordination and Control Health: Non-communicable Diseases Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16 Age 5 - 7 Age 7 - 11

Can I hack my hormones to beat jet lag?

We explore the hormones behind our sleep-wake cycle, how they can get out of sync and why some athletes are totally immune to jet lag.

Coordination and Control Health: Non-communicable Diseases Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16 Age 5 - 7 Age 7 - 11

Are my hormones making me fat?

How do our hormones impact our eating habits and will scientists ever make a diet pill? Plus, the tale of the Labradors and the impossible sausage.

Coordination and Control Health: Non-communicable Diseases Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16 Age 5 - 7 Age 7 - 11

What is endocrinology?

Hormones are chemical messengers that regulate all of our body's essential functions for health and survival, including growth, metabolism and reproduction.

Human Reproduction Coordination and Control Health: Non-communicable Diseases Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16 Age 5 - 7 Age 7 - 11

How does the menstrual cycle work?

Discover how changes in hormone levels regulate the different stages of the menstrual cycle in our animation.

Human Reproduction Coordination and Control Health: Non-communicable Diseases Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16 Age 5 - 7 Age 7 - 11

What does your pituitary gland do?

Often called the 'master gland', learn how your pituitary gland produces hormones that regulate you body's essential functions.

Human Reproduction Coordination and Control Health: Non-communicable Diseases Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16 Age 5 - 7 Age 7 - 11

Hospital Hormone Challenge

Hormone Hospital Challenge is an interactive online revision game designed for GCSE and Level 5 school students, and Junior Cycle biology courses to test and deepen their understanding of hormones.

Human Reproduction Coordination and Control Health: Non-communicable Diseases Any Key Stage

What is Diabetes?

1st place winner of the 2024 Student Video Award (postgraduate): Manpreet Kaur Mujral University of Westminster

Human Reproduction Coordination and Control Health: Non-communicable Diseases Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16 Age 5 - 7 Age 7 - 11

What is Puberty?

1st place winner of the 2024 Student Video Award (undergraduate): Trevor Tam University of East Anglia, Norwich Medical School

Human Reproduction Coordination and Control Health: Non-communicable Diseases Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16 Age 5 - 7 Age 7 - 11

Homeostasis The Body's Balancing Act

Joint 2nd place winner of the 2024 Student Video Award (undergraduate): Alsadeg Bilal & Ridwanullahi Tella University of Edinburgh

Human Reproduction Coordination and Control Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16 Age 5 - 7 Age 7 - 11

What is Diabetes?

Joint 2nd place winner of the 2024 Student Video Award (undergraduate): David Gringras & Man Hei Marcus Kam Edinburgh Medical School

Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16 Age 5 - 7 Age 7 - 11 Human Reproduction Coordination and Control

Male Hormonal Contraception

2nd place winner of the 2023 Student Video Award (undergraduate): Ryan Danvers University of Oxford

Human Reproduction Coordination and Control Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16 Age 5 - 7 Age 7 - 11

Understanding PCOS: Science, Symptoms and Research

3rd place winner of the 2023 Student Video Award (undergraduate): Alaina Shariff University of Edinburgh

Age 11 - 14 Age 14 - 16 Age 5 - 7 Age 7 - 11 Human Reproduction Coordination and Control