The pituitary gland is a small gland that sits in the sella turcica (‘Turkish saddle’), a bony hollow in the base of the skull, underneath the brain and behind the bridge of the nose. The pituitary gland has two main lobes, the anterior pituitary gland and the posterior pituitary gland, which are joined by pars intermedia. The gland is attached to a part of the brain (the hypothalamus) that controls its activity. The anterior pituitary gland is connected to the brain by short blood vessels. The posterior pituitary gland forms part of the brain and secretes hormones directly into the bloodstream under the command of the brain.
The pituitary gland is called the 'master gland' as the hormones it produces control so many different processes in the body. It senses the body's needs and sends signals to different organs and glands throughout the body to regulate their function and maintain an appropriate environment. It secretes a variety of hormones into the bloodstream which act as messengers to transmit information from the pituitary gland to distant cells, regulating their activity. For example, the pituitary gland produces prolactin, which acts on the mammary glands in the breasts to induce milk production. The pituitary gland also secretes hormones that act on the adrenal glands, thyroid gland, ovaries and testes, which in turn produce other hormones. Through secretion of its hormones, the pituitary gland controls metabolism, growth, sexual maturation, reproduction, blood pressure and many other vital physical functions and processes.
Regulated by releasing or inhibitory signals from the hypothalamus and the circulatory hormone level, the anterior pituitary gland produces the following hormones and releases them into the bloodstream:
Each of these hormones is made by a separate type of cell within the pituitary gland, except for follicle stimulating hormone and luteinising hormone, which are made together by the same cell.
Two hormones are produced by the hypothalamus and then stored in the posterior pituitary gland before being secreted into the bloodstream. These are:
Between the anterior pituitary and the posterior pituitary lies the pars intermedia, also called intermediate pituitary gland. Cells here produce:
The pituitary gland is an important gland in the body and the hormones it produces carry out varied tasks and regulate the function of many other organs. This means that the symptoms experienced when the pituitary gland stops working correctly can be different, depending on which hormone is affected.
Conditions that affect the pituitary gland directly can be divided into three main categories:
A cell type may divide and then form a small benign lump, known as a tumour, and the patient may then suffer from the effects of too much of the hormone the cell produces. If the tumour grows very large, even though still benign, it may squash the surrounding cells and stop them working (hypopituitarism), or push upwards and interfere with vision – a visual field defect. Very occasionally, the tumour may expand sideways and cause double vision as it affects the nerves that control eye movements. It should be emphasised that even when these tumours are large, they very rarely spread to other parts of the body. Lines of treatments to pituitary tumour include surgical operations and radiotherapy.
Useful link: The Pituitary Foundation
Last reviewed: May 2021