Topical issues

This section provides in depth information on issues relating to hormones and endocrine conditions. Here you can find feature articles on the effects of hormones on our bodies and in the world around us. You can also find information on the latest guidelines produced by the Society for Endocrinology and other relevant organisations.

Topical issues

What is HRT?

Hormone replacement therapy (or HRT) (also known as menopausal hormone therapy; MHT) is the replacement of female sex hormones oestrogen and progesterone in women to control symptoms of the menopause.

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The controlled and regulated use of laboratory animals in medical research has helped to extend our understanding of the healthy and diseased lifecourse, as well as the development of novel and effective therapeutic interventions.

Hormone replacement therapy (or HRT) (also known as menopausal hormone therapy; MHT) is the replacement of female sex hormones oestrogen and progesterone in women to control symptoms of the menopause.

The study of animal reproductive systems and regular monitoring of reproductive and stress hormones is important for conservation.

The height a person reaches as an adult is a result of their genes as well as general health and nutrition during their years of growth. Normal growth is controlled by hormones such as growth hormone, sex hormones and thyroid hormones.

Eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder can influence hormone levels causing physical and psychological problems. Unhealthy eating styles can affect hormones that regulate metabolism, fertility and pregnancy.

This is a patient factsheet on the Society for Endocrinology's guidance document on the initial evaluation of a child with a suspected differences/disorders of sex development.

This is a patient factsheet summarising the Society for Endocrinology's position statement on male hypogonadism and ageing.

This article describes hormones that play an important role in pregnancy and labour.

Growth of the fetus during pregnancy is regulated by a balance of hormones.

Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the inability to have or maintain an erection for sexual intercourse.

In vitro fertilisation is a fertility treatment which stimulates the ovaries to produce multiple eggs which are collected and fertilised by sperm outside of the body in the laboratory to create embryos. One or two of which are then selected and transferred back to the womb in order to result in pregnancy.

There is a great deal of ongoing research into developing new male contraceptive options. However, currently, the only available male contraceptive options are undergoing a surgical procedure called a vasectomy and using a condom.

The menstrual cycle is governed by an interaction between reproductive hormones which prepares the endometrium (or womb) for pregnancy, or if no pregnancy occurs, the fall in progesterone leads to shedding of the endometrial lining and recommences the monthly cycle.

Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS) is a side-effect of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatment. It occurs due to over-stimulation of the ovaries by the hormone used to prepare the eggs for collection and fertilisation by sperm, in particular the hormone ‘human chorionic gonadotrophin’ (hCG).