The ovaries produce and release eggs (oocytes) into the female reproductive tract at the mid-point of each menstrual cycle. They also produce the female hormones oestrogen and progesterone.
Oestradiol is a powerful reproductive hormone that has a wide range of actions in both men and women.
Oestriol is a hormone made during pregnancy that can be used to measure fetal health and predict when birth may happen.
Oestrone is a hormone produced by the ovaries. It is one of the major oestrogens in postmenopausal women.
Oxytocin is a hormone that acts on organs in the body (including the breast and uterus) and as a chemical messenger in the brain, controlling key aspects of the reproductive system, including childbirth and lactation, and aspects of human behaviour.
Obesity is an excess of calories stored in the form of fat. It is an increasing public health and medical problem associated with reduced quality and length of life.
Osteoporosis is a bone disorder caused by loss of bone mass, resulting in abnormal bone structure and an increased risk of fracture.
the word used to describe a person whose body mass index (BMI = weight/ height2, where weight is in kilograms and height is in metres) is greater than 30.
a substance similar to the hormone somatostatin, which is used in nuclear medicine scans to detect a neuroendocrine tumour.
a type of sex steroid hormone found in men and women responsible for secondary sexual characteristics. There are three oestrogens – oestrone, oestradiol and oestriol – the most potent of which is oestradiol.
a doctor that specialises in the treatment of cancer.
the study of eyes and conditions that affect the eyes.
the nerve behind the eye.
death (or breaking down) of bone tissue.
a condition caused by raised gonadotrophin levels, leading to enlargement of the ovaries and pain in the abdomen. Can occur during IVF treatment when ovaries are stimulated to release eggs for harvesting.
the number of eggs a woman has left in her ovaries. A woman is born with all her eggs, which gradually reduce in number with age.
the process by which an egg is released from the ovary at the mid-point of the menstrual cycle (around day 14). It is triggered by a surge in luteinising hormone from the pituitary gland; this hormone is measured in ovulation kits.
Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS) is a side-effect of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatment. It occurs due to over-stimulation of the ovaries by the hormone used to prepare the eggs for collection and fertilisation by sperm, in particular the hormone ‘human chorionic gonadotrophin’ (hCG).
Winners of 2020 Student Video Award: 1st Place Winner: Aqua Asif, University of Leicester