hard abnormal masses in the gallbladder or bile duct that occur when there is a build-up of cholesterol in bile; the cholesterol comes out of solution to form a stone-like mass.
digestive juice produced by the stomach containing enzymes and acids.
an operation used to treat morbid obesity where the stomach is reduced in size and the small intestine is shortened to reduce the amount of calories absorbed from food to aid weight loss.
inflammation of the stomach causing pain, nausea and vomiting.
referring to the stomach and intestine.
a section of DNA that ‘codes’ for a protein. Our genes carry the hereditary information that is passed on to the next generation.
referring to a condition or trait that is inherited in families.
a mistake in the DNA sequence of a gene, which can sometimes lead to a different or abnormal protein being produced.
a tendency to have a particular disease that is inherited in families.
a process whereby an individual undergoes tests to determine their genetic code for a certain condition. Genetic testing should be carried out by a specialised centre and offered along with counselling for the affected individual.
the reproductive parts of men (penis and scrotum) and women (labia, clitoris and vagina).
an egg (or ovum) or sperm. These cells contain half the number of chromosomes as other cells (23 instead of 23 pairs in humans).
the period of time when a baby is developing inside its mother's womb. In humans, this period is nine months.
an infectious condition caused by Epstein Barr virus, characterised by a fever, sore throat, swollen lymph nodes, and abnormal lymphocytes in the blood.
a group of steroid hormones, make by the outer part (cortex) of the adrenal gland, including cortisol, which have anti-inflammatory effects.
occurs due to a build-up of fluid in the middle ear, leading to hearing loss or reduced hearing in the affected ear. If glue ear persists, it can be treated by inserting small tubes called grommets in the ear to drain away the fluid.
a term used to describe the reproductive organs of men (testes) and women (ovaries).
term used to describe the digestive tract or alimentary canal (oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine).
to do with the female reproductive system.
doctor who specialises in the treatment of disorders of the female reproductive system.
Gastrin is a hormone produced by the stomach, which stimulates gastric motility and the release of gastric acid.
Ghrelin is produced by the stomach. Among its numerous functions, ghrelin increases appetite and stimulates the release of growth hormone.
Glucagon is produced to maintain glucose levels in the bloodstream when fasting and to raise very low glucose levels.
Glucagon-like peptide 1 is a hormone produced in the gut and released in response to food. It causes reduced appetite and the release of insulin.
Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide is a hormone produced by the small intestine in response to eating food. Its main action is to encourage the release of insulin into the bloodstream to control blood sugar levels.
Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone is released from the hypothalamus in the brain. It controls the production of luteinising hormone and follicle stimulating hormone from the pituitary gland.
Growth hormone is produced by the pituitary gland. It has many functions including maintaining normal body structure and metabolism.
Growth hormone-releasing hormone stimulates the secretion of growth hormone, an important regulator of growth, metabolism and body structure.
Gastrinomas are neuroendocrine tumours that are usually found in the first part of the small intestine or in the pancreas, which produce excess amounts of the hormone called gastrin.
Gender identity disorder is where a person is dissatisfied with their biological sex, because they feel that it is different from the gender they feel they should be. This often leads to a desire to change their appearance with hormones or surgery and live in their preferred gender.
Gestational diabetes is development of high blood sugar (glucose) levels during pregnancy. Strict blood glucose control in pregnant women improves outcomes for both the mother and child.
Gigantism is a rare condition due to abnormal, accelerated growth caused by excessive amounts of growth hormone secretion during childhood or adolescence. It is almost always the result of a growth hormone-secreting pituitary tumour.
A glucagonoma is a very rare tumour of the pancreas in which there is an increase in release of the hormone glucagon, causing a characteristic skin rash and raised blood sugar levels.
Goitre is a general term for an enlarged thyroid gland. Depending on the type of swelling, location, how it affects gland function and how long it has been present, goitre has various effects and is treated in a variety of different ways.
Graves' disease is an autoimmune thyroid disease. The body produces antibodies against the thyroid gland which can cause it to become overactive, resulting in increased thyroid hormone production and hyperthyroidism.