44 result(s) found.

negative feedback

a control mechanism in the body whereby production of a hormone is switched off when levels in the bloodstream become too high.

positive feedback

the process that occurs after a hormone produces its response to signal for more of this hormone to be released.

Corticotrophin-releasing hormone
Corticotrophin-releasing hormone is the main element that drives the body's response to stress. It is also present in diseases that cause inflammation. Too much or too little corticotrophin-releasing hormone can have a range of negative effects.

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Tertiary hyperparathyroidism
Tertiary hyperparathyroidism means excess production of parathyroid hormone that has escaped all normal body feedback controls and so persists even in cases where the initial cause (low blood calcium) has been corrected.

Follicle stimulating hormone
Follicle stimulating hormone is produced by the pituitary gland. It regulates the functions of both the ovaries and testes. Lack or low levels of it can cause subfertility in both men and women.

Menstrual cycle
The menstrual cycle is an important process that prepares the body for the possibility of pregnancy. Each stage is driven by reproductive hormones that are regulated by the pituitary gland.

Male contraceptives
There is a great deal of ongoing research into developing new male contraceptive options. However, currently, the only available male contraceptive options are undergoing a surgical procedure called a vasectomy and using a condom.

Thyroxine is the main hormone secreted into the bloodstream by the thyroid gland. It plays vital roles in metabolism, heart and muscle function, brain development, and maintenance of bones.

Human chorionic gonadotrophin
Human chorionic gonadotrophin is a reproductive hormone that is essential for establishing and maintaining early pregnancy.

Luteinising hormone
Luteinising hormone is produced by the pituitary gland and is one of the main hormones that control the reproductive system.

Nelson's syndrome
Nelson's syndrome is the name given to the enlargement of a pituitary gland tumour associated with excess secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone following the surgical removal of both adrenal glands, usually to treat Cushing's disease.

Parathyroid hormone
Parathyroid hormone is secreted by the parathyroid glands and is the most important regulator of blood calcium levels.

Dihydrotestosterone, a hormone with powerful androgenic actions, causes the body to mature during puberty and is responsible for many of the physical characteristics associated with adult males.

The hypothalamus is a part of the brain that has a vital role in controlling many bodily functions including the release of hormones from the pituitary gland.

Adrenocorticotropic hormone
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is produced by the pituitary gland. Its key function is to stimulate the production and release of cortisol from the cortex (outer part) of the adrenal gland.

Dehydroepiandrosterone is an important precursor hormone, and is the most abundant circulating steroid present in the human body. It has little biological effect on its own but has powerful effects when converted into other hormones such as sex steroids.

Prolactin is a hormone produced in the pituitary gland, named because of its role in lactation. It also has other wide-ranging functions in the body, from acting on the reproductive system to influencing behaviour and regulating the immune system.

Cortisol is a steroid hormone that regulates a wide range of processes throughout the body, including metabolism and the immune response. It also has a very important role in helping the body respond to stress.

Thyroid stimulating hormone
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) is produced by the pituitary gland. Its role is to regulate (by stimulating) the production of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland.

Testosterone is a hormone that is responsible for many of the physical characteristics specific to adult males. It plays a key role in reproduction and the maintenance of bone and muscle strength.

What is HRT?
Hormone replacement therapy (or HRT) (also known as menopausal hormone therapy; MHT) is the replacement of female sex hormones oestrogen and progesterone in women to control symptoms of the menopause.

Thyroid gland
The thyroid gland is part of the endocrine system and produces thyroid hormones, which are important for metabolic health.

Adrenal glands
The adrenal glands are small glands attached to the top of each kidney. The human body has two adrenal glands that release chemical messengers called hormones into the bloodstream. These hormones travel via the blood to have an action in other parts of the human body.

Triiodothyronine is a thyroid hormone that plays vital roles in the body's metabolic rate, heart and digestive functions, muscle control, brain development and function, and the maintenance of bones.

The menopause is the time when menstruation stops because the ovaries stop producing hormones and releasing eggs for fertilisation. This marks the end of a woman's reproductive years.

Are my hormones making me horny?
What’s the difference between sexual desire and arousal? How does the contraceptive pill affect your sex drive? Which hormone has recently been found to boost sexual arousal in both men and women?

Oxytocin is a hormone that acts on organs in the body (including the breast and uterus) and as a chemical messenger in the brain, controlling key aspects of the reproductive system, including childbirth and lactation, and aspects of human behaviour.

Oestriol is a hormone made during pregnancy that can be used to measure foetal health and predict when birth may happen.

Oestrone is a hormone produced by the ovaries, adrenal glands and fat. It is one of the major oestrogens in postmenopausal women.

Somatostatin is a hormone that inhibits the secretion of several other hormones, including growth hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, cholecystokinin and insulin.

Melanocyte-stimulating hormone
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone describes a group of hormones produced by the pituitary gland, hypothalamus and skin cells. It is important for protecting the skin from UV rays, development of pigmentation and control of appetite.

Primary hyperaldosteronism
Primary hyperaldosteronism refers to a condition in which one or both adrenal glands generate too much of a hormone called aldosterone. This causes sodium (salt) retention, leading to high blood pressure.

Hirsutism is the presence of excess male-pattern hair growth in women and is commonly caused by an imbalance of hormones.

Melatonin is mainly produced by the pineal gland and although it appears not to be essential for human physiology, it is known to have a range of different effects when taken as a medication.

Lipodystrophy is a condition in which the amount and/or distribution of adipose tissue (fat tissue) in the body is abnormal. Different types of lipodystrophy cause loss or re-distribution of fat tissue in different patterns.

Are everyday chemicals harming my health?
There are chemicals all around us, but can they interfere with our hormones? Endocrine disruptors have been linked with a number of health problems, so for the final episode in the series we look at where these chemicals are found and whether we should be worried.

Cushing's syndrome
Cushing's syndrome is the name given to the collection of signs and symptoms that occur when the body is exposed to too much of the hormone cortisol.

Obesity is an excess of calories stored in the form of fat. It is an increasing public health and medical problem associated with reduced quality and length of life.

Is modern life overloading our stress levels?
We all know what it's like to feel stressed, perhaps this year more than most, but what are our stress hormones really doing to our minds and bodies?

Can I hack my hormones to beat jet lag?
We explore the hormones behind our sleep-wake cycle, how they can get out of sync and why some athletes are totally immune to jet lag.

Is my soya latte messing with my hormones?
Should I be concerned about growth hormones in a cow's milk cappuccino? Are the plant oestrogens in a soya latte affecting my risk of cancer? Will almond milk damage my thyroid?  Professor Tim Key and Dr Sarah Bath are spilling the tea (milk, no sugar) and looking at the hormonal impact of plant and cow’s milks.

Is my diabetes my fault?
Is type 2 diabetes really a “lifestyle disease”? Why do some people develop diabetes even though they’re eating healthily while many obese people escape the disease? How can your environment shape your diabetes risk before you’re even born? Dr Inês Cebola, Dr Shivani Misra and Dr Lorna Smith are on a myth-busting mission tackling the misconceptions around type 2 diabetes.

Can my pet pick up my stress?
Do animals recognise when we are feeling the pressure? How can dogs help us when our stress hormones fail? And how has studying stress in horses helped us understand human hormones? Claire Pesterfield, Michelle Sutherland, Dr Clara Wilson and Dr Ruth Morgan let the cat out of the bag as we ask, “Can my pet pick up my stress?”