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magnetic resonance imaging

(MRI) a type of radiography scan used to visualise parts of the body internally for diagnostic purposes. Electromagnetic energy is used to create an image.

Empty sella syndrome
/endocrine-conditions/empty-sella-syndrome/
Empty sella syndrome is the term used to describe the appearance of a small, shrunken or absent pituitary gland on pituitary imaging. Most patients have no symptoms, and generally no treatment is required. If hormone deficiencies are present, hormone replacement therapy should be considered.

ultrasound scan

a type of imaging where a probe that gives off high frequency sound waves is used on the surface of the skin to form a picture of the tissues below. Ultrasound is used during pregnancy to check how the baby is developing.

Pineal gland
/glands/pineal-gland/
The pineal gland is situated in the middle of the human brain and is the major site of the body's melatonin production.

Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone
/hormones/gonadotrophin-releasing-hormone/
Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone is released from the hypothalamus in the brain. It controls the production of luteinising hormone and follicle stimulating hormone from the pituitary gland.

TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma
/endocrine-conditions/tsh-secreting-pituitary-adenoma/
TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas are slow-growing benign pituitary tumours that produce thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and are a very rare cause of hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid).

Somatostatinoma
/endocrine-conditions/somatostatinoma/
Somatostatinomas are rare neuroendocrine tumours that arise from tumour cells originated from specialised hormone-producing cells in the endocrine pancreas and duodenum (first part of small intestine).

Endometriosis
/endocrine-conditions/endometriosis/
Endometriosis is a condition in women where the lining of the womb grows outside of the womb causing scar tissue and painful monthly periods.

Sheehan's syndrome
/endocrine-conditions/sheehan-s-syndrome/
Sheehan's syndrome is a rare condition affecting the pituitary gland that occurs as a result of heavy bleeding during or after childbirth.

Craniopharyngioma
/endocrine-conditions/craniopharyngioma/
Craniopharyngiomas are rare, slow-growing benign brain tumours which most commonly occur above the pituitary gland, but occasionally are found within the bony cup containing the pituitary gland.

Amenorrhoea
/endocrine-conditions/amenorrhoea/
Amenorrhoea is the term used to describe a lack of 'periods' (menstrual cycles) in women. The management of amenorrhoea depends on the underlying cause.

Paraganglioma
/endocrine-conditions/paraganglioma/
A paraganglioma is a rare type of tumour that forms along major blood vessels and nerves. Paragangliomas can occur in the head, neck, chest or abdomen.

Gastrinoma
/endocrine-conditions/gastrinoma/
Gastrinomas are neuroendocrine tumours that are usually found in the first part of the small intestine or in the pancreas, which produce excess amounts of the hormone called gastrin.

Phaeochromocytoma
/endocrine-conditions/phaeochromocytoma/
A phaeochromocytoma is a tumour of the adrenal gland that produces excess amounts of hormones such as adrenaline and noradrenaline.

Familial medullary thyroid cancer
/endocrine-conditions/familial-medullary-thyroid-cancer/
Familial medullary thyroid cancer is a rare inherited form of thyroid cancer.

Gigantism
/endocrine-conditions/gigantism/
Gigantism is a rare condition due to abnormal, accelerated growth caused by excessive amounts of growth hormone secretion during childhood or adolescence. It is almost always the result of a growth hormone-secreting pituitary tumour.

Hypopituitarism
/endocrine-conditions/hypopituitarism/
Hypopituitarism is the failure of production of one or more hormones from the pituitary gland.

Precocious puberty
/endocrine-conditions/precocious-puberty/
Precocious puberty is the abnormally early development of any secondary sexual characteristics: before the age of nine years in a boy and eight years of age in a girl.

Patient factsheet: UK guidance on differences/disorders of sex development in children
/topical-issues/patient-factsheet-uk-guidance-on-differences-disorders-of-sex-development-in-children/
This is a patient factsheet on the Society for Endocrinology's guidance document on the initial evaluation of a child with a suspected differences/disorders of sex development.

Pituitary apoplexy
/endocrine-conditions/pituitary-apoplexy/
Pituitary apoplexy is a medical emergency. It is caused by either a bleed into and/or death of an area of tissue in the pituitary gland. It is usually associated with the presence of a pituitary tumour.

Thyroid eye disease
/endocrine-conditions/thyroid-eye-disease/
Thyroid eye disease is an autoimmune condition that affects the eyes causing swelling, inflammation and sometimes visual problems.

Insulinoma
/endocrine-conditions/insulinoma/
An insulinoma is a type of tumour that occurs in the pancreas. The tumour secretes too much insulin, which causes blood glucose (sugar) to drop to low levels.

Delayed puberty
/endocrine-conditions/delayed-puberty/
Delayed puberty is defined as no secondary sexual maturation or any sign of puberty by the age of 13 years in girls and 14 years in boys.

Glucagonoma
/endocrine-conditions/glucagonoma/
A glucagonoma is a very rare tumour of the pancreas in which there is an increase in release of the hormone glucagon, causing a characteristic skin rash and raised blood sugar levels.

Resistance to thyroid hormone
/endocrine-conditions/resistance-to-thyroid-hormone/
Resistance to thyroid hormone is a rare genetic condition where some body tissues do not respond normally to thyroid hormones produced by the thyroid gland. It may be associated with no symptoms or with features of both an overactive and underactive thyroid.

Non-functioning pancreatic NETs
/endocrine-conditions/non-functioning-pancreatic-nets/
Non-functioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) are tumours that originate in specialised cells of the pancreas.

Acromegaly
/endocrine-conditions/acromegaly/
Acromegaly is a condition that develops due to overproduction of growth hormone, usually caused by a benign tumour of the pituitary gland. It leads to an increase in size of the hands and feet, a change in the appearance of the face and enlargement of the internal organs.

Non-functioning pituitary tumours
/endocrine-conditions/non-functioning-pituitary-tumours/
Non-functioning pituitary tumours are the most common benign growths in the pituitary gland. These tumours are usually identified because of impaired vision or hormone deficiencies.

Cushing's disease
/endocrine-conditions/cushing-s-disease/
Cushing's disease is the condition resulting from a pituitary tumour secreting excess amounts of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which then stimulates the adrenal glands to release excess amounts of the hormone cortisol.

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1
/endocrine-conditions/multiple-endocrine-neoplasia-type-1/
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is a rare inherited disease, which can result in tumours in the pituitary and parathyroid glands, and pancreas.

Endometrial cancer
/endocrine-conditions/endometrial-cancer/
Endometrial cancer is a form of cancer that originates from the tissue that lines the womb. This tissue is called the endometrium.

Cushing's syndrome
/endocrine-conditions/cushing-s-syndrome/
Cushing's syndrome is the name given to the collection of signs and symptoms that occur when the body is exposed to too much of the hormone cortisol.

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B
/endocrine-conditions/multiple-endocrine-neoplasia-type-2b/
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B (MEN2B) is a rare inherited disease causing the development of tumours in the thyroid, adrenal and parathyroid glands, and mucosal tumours.

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A
/endocrine-conditions/multiple-endocrine-neoplasia-type-2a/
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A) is a rare inherited disease causing the development of tumours in the thyroid, adrenal and parathyroid glands.

How can future technology help my hormones?
/resources/digital-library/podcasts/how-can-future-technology-help-my-hormones/
Could 3D printed pancreases be the cure for type 1 diabetes? Will AI take over in the IVF clinic? How and why have researchers created a remote controlled adrenal gland? Simon Hanassab, Dr Vicky Salem and Professor Polina Anikeeva are separating science fact from science fiction and seeing how future technology could solve today’s hormone problems.

Content contributors
/about/content-contributors/
You and Your Hormones is written and reviewed by a dedicated team of experts from the Society of Endocrinology’s member community.

Are my hormones making me horny?
/resources/digital-library/podcasts/are-my-hormones-making-me-horny/
What’s the difference between sexual desire and arousal? How does the contraceptive pill affect your sex drive? Which hormone has recently been found to boost sexual arousal in both men and women?

Testes
/glands/testes/
The testes are two oval-shaped male reproductive glands that produce sperm and the hormone testosterone.

Hirsutism
/endocrine-conditions/hirsutism/
Hirsutism is the presence of excess male-pattern hair growth in women and is commonly caused by an imbalance of hormones.

Thyroid cancer
/endocrine-conditions/thyroid-cancer/
Thyroid cancer is the uncontrolled growth of cells in the thyroid gland which may spread to areas around the thyroid and to other parts of the body. Thyroid cancer can affect people of all ages. Most patients are cured by the treatments now available.

Primary hyperaldosteronism
/endocrine-conditions/primary-hyperaldosteronism/
Primary hyperaldosteronism refers to a condition in which one or both adrenal glands generate too much of a hormone called aldosterone. This causes sodium (salt) retention, leading to high blood pressure.

Paget's disease
/endocrine-conditions/paget-s-disease/
Paget's disease is a common, chronic bone disorder which may have no symptoms or it may cause pain, deformity and bone fracture. Early diagnosis of symptoms and treatment with medication will help to control Paget's disease.

Are everyday chemicals harming my health?
/resources/digital-library/podcasts/are-everyday-chemicals-harming-my-health/
There are chemicals all around us, but can they interfere with our hormones? Endocrine disruptors have been linked with a number of health problems, so for the final episode in the series we look at where these chemicals are found and whether we should be worried.

Are my hormones making me fat?
/resources/digital-library/podcasts/are-my-hormones-making-me-fat/
How do our hormones impact our eating habits and will scientists ever make a diet pill? Plus, the tale of the Labradors and the impossible sausage.

Does when I eat affect my weight?
/resources/digital-library/podcasts/does-when-i-eat-affect-my-weight/
Does when you eat affect your body weight? Do meal-timing based diets like intermittent fasting really work? How are your hormones involved and does this new diet fad stand up to scientific scrutiny?

Should we have the steroid Olympics?
/resources/digital-library/podcasts/should-we-have-the-steroid-olympics/
Doping scandals are a regular feature in sporting events, but how do the hormones involved boost performance and why are they banned? Plus, a short history of doping.

Can I hack my hormones to beat jet lag?
/resources/digital-library/podcasts/can-i-hack-my-hormones-to-beat-jet-lag/
We explore the hormones behind our sleep-wake cycle, how they can get out of sync and why some athletes are totally immune to jet lag.

Can my pet pick up my stress?
/resources/digital-library/podcasts/can-my-pet-pick-up-my-stress/
Do animals recognise when we are feeling the pressure? How can dogs help us when our stress hormones fail? And how has studying stress in horses helped us understand human hormones? Claire Pesterfield, Michelle Sutherland, Dr Clara Wilson and Dr Ruth Morgan let the cat out of the bag as we ask, “Can my pet pick up my stress?”

Can I hack my hormones to improve my mood?
/resources/digital-library/podcasts/can-i-hack-my-hormones-to-improve-my-mood/
Do happy hormones exist? Is there a chemical recipe for improving your mood and is oxytocin really the biological basis of love?

Can I hack my hormones to beat ageing?
/resources/digital-library/podcasts/can-i-hack-my-hormones-to-beat-ageing/
Are there really chemicals inside us that could lead to some age-defying interventions in the future? Could our hormones hold the map to the fountain of youth?

Is my soya latte messing with my hormones?
/resources/digital-library/podcasts/is-my-soya-latte-messing-with-my-hormones/
Should I be concerned about growth hormones in a cow's milk cappuccino? Are the plant oestrogens in a soya latte affecting my risk of cancer? Will almond milk damage my thyroid?  Professor Tim Key and Dr Sarah Bath are spilling the tea (milk, no sugar) and looking at the hormonal impact of plant and cow’s milks.