Glossary

Browse through glands, hormones and endocrine conditions.
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Kidneys

The kidneys are specialised organs that ensure that unwanted substances and excess water are removed from the bloodstream.

Kisspeptin

Kisspeptin is a protein that is essential for reproductive hormone secretion and fertility. The gene (which provides the blue-print for the kisspeptin protein) was first discovered in 1996 by a group of researchers working in Hershey, Pennsylvania in the USA. It is therefore named after the city's chocolate 'Kisses', which are made in Hershey.

Klinefelter's syndrome

Klinefelter's syndrome is a genetic condition affecting boys and men that occurs as a result of the presence of one or more extra X chromosomes. The condition is typically characterised by tall stature, reduced fertility and development of breast tissue, although some patients have no clinical features other than reduced or absent sperm count.

karyotyping

blood test used to gain a picture of the layout of chromosomes (genetic material) in a person’s cells. The test is used to check that the number and formation of the chromosomes is correct.

ketoacidosis

a condition caused by insulin deficiency. Characterised by excessive release of acidic energy stores into the blood, leading to changes to the way energy is stored and used in the body. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) can occur in untreated type 1 diabetes where blood sugar levels are very high.

keyhole

describes a non-invasive type of surgery where only a small incision is made in the skin to perform the procedure.

kidney stones

hard masses that form from large deposits of calcium in the kidneys.


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