blood test used to gain a picture of the layout of chromosomes (genetic material) in a person’s cells. The test is used to check that the number and formation of the chromosomes is correct.
a condition caused by insulin deficiency. Characterised by excessive release of acidic energy stores into the blood, leading to changes to the way energy is stored and used in the body. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) can occur in untreated type 1 diabetes where blood sugar levels are very high.
describes a non-invasive type of surgery where only a small incision is made in the skin to perform the procedure.
hard masses that form from large deposits of calcium in the kidneys.
The kidneys are specialised organs that ensure that unwanted substances and excess water are removed from the bloodstream.
Kisspeptin is a protein that is essential for reproductive hormone secretion and fertility. The gene (which provides the blue-print for the kisspeptin protein) was first discovered in 1996 by a group of researchers working in Hershey, Pennsylvania in the USA. It is therefore named after the city's chocolate 'Kisses', which are made in Hershey.
Klinefelter syndrome is a genetic condition that can only affect boys / men and occurs due to the presence of one (or more) extra X chromosomes. The condition is typically characterised by tall stature, reduced fertility and development of breast tissue (gynaecomastia), although in some men there may be no clinical features other than reduced or absent sperm count.