Glossary

Browse through glands, hormones and endocrine conditions.
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haemorrhage

sudden and rapid blood loss that occurs when a blood vessel is damaged.

heart failure

occurs when the heart becomes weak and struggles to pump blood around the body efficiently.

heart valve

flap of tissue in the heart that ensures blood flows in one direction only.

HIV

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is a virus that damages the cells in the immune system and weakens the ability to fight everyday infections and disease. HIV is transmitted through sexual intercourse, sharing needles and from mother to baby during pregnancy.

hydrocortisone

a synthetic (artificial) version of the hormone cortisol, usually taken in tablet form, to replace cortisol in the body.

hypertension

high blood pressure.

hypotension

low blood pressure.

hysterectomy

an operation to remove a woman's womb and ovaries, resulting in the menopause. A partial hysterectomy can be performed where the ovaries are preserved, which does not result in the menopause.

Hypothalamus

The hypothalamus is a part of the brain that has a vital role in controlling many bodily functions including the release of hormones from the pituitary gland.

Human chorionic gonadotrophin

Human chorionic gonadotrophin is a reproductive hormone that is essential for establishing and maintaining early pregnancy.

Hashimoto's disease

Hashimoto's disease is an autoimmune disease that causes inflammation of the thyroid gland and results in a reduction in thyroid hormone levels.

Hirsutism

Hirsutism is the presence of excess male-pattern hair growth in women and is commonly caused by an imbalance of hormones.

Hypercalcaemia

Hypercalcaemia is the presence of abnormally high calcium levels in the blood.

Hyperthyroidism

Hyperthyroidism is a common condition where the thyroid gland becomes overactive and produces too much thyroid hormone.

Hypocalcaemia

Hypocalcaemia refers to low calcium levels in the blood. It is most commonly caused by either vitamin D deficiency or diseases of the parathyroid glands.

Hyponatraemia

Hyponatraemia means abnormally low levels of sodium (salt) in the bloodstream or a deficiency of sodium in the body.

Hypoparathyroidism

Hypoparathyroidism is a rare condition characterised by inadequate parathyroid hormone production from the parathyroid glands, resulting in low calcium levels in the bloodstream.

Hypophosphataemia

Hypophosphataemia is the term used to describe low levels of phosphate in the blood. It is most commonly caused by hyperparathyroidism and vitamin D deficiency.

Hypopituitarism

Hypopituitarism is the failure of production of one or more hormones from the pituitary gland.

Hypothyroidism

Hypothyroidism is a condition that develops when the thyroid gland is unable to produce enough thyroid hormones.


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