The kidneys are specialised organs that ensure that unwanted substances and excess water are removed from the bloodstream.
Kisspeptins are a family of proteins that are essential for fertility. The first gene member of the family was discovered in 1996 by a group working in Hershey, Pennsylvania. It is named after the city's chocolate 'Kisses', which are made in Hershey.
Klinefelter's syndrome is a genetic condition affecting boys and men that occurs as a result of the presence of one or more extra X chromosomes. The condition is typically characterised by tall stature, reduced fertility and development of breast tissue, although some patients have no clinical features other than reduced or absent sperm count.
blood test used to gain a picture of the layout of chromosomes (genetic material) in a person’s cells. The test is used to check that the number and formation of the chromosomes is correct.
a condition caused by insulin deficiency. Characterised by excessive release of acidic energy stores into the blood, leading to changes to the way energy is stored and used in the body. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) can occur in untreated type 1 diabetes where blood sugar levels are very high.
describes a non-invasive type of surgery where only a small incision is made in the skin to perform the procedure.
hard masses that form from large deposits of calcium in the kidneys.