Glossary

Browse through glands, hormones and endocrine conditions.
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H

Human Body

Endocrine glands are small organs that make and release hormones into the blood stream.

Hypothalamus

The hypothalamus is a part of the brain that has a vital role in controlling many bodily functions including the release of hormones from the pituitary gland.

Hormones

A hormone is a chemical that is made by specialist cells, usually within an endocrine gland.

Human chorionic gonadotrophin

Human chorionic gonadotrophin is a reproductive hormone that is essential for establishing and maintaining early pregnancy.

Hashimoto's disease

Hashimoto's disease is an autoimmune disease that causes inflammation of the thyroid gland and results in a reduction in thyroid hormone levels.

Hirsutism

Hirsutism is the presence of excess male-pattern hair growth in women and is commonly caused by an imbalance of hormones.

Hypercalcaemia

Hypercalcaemia is the presence of abnormally high calcium levels in the blood.

Hyperthyroidism

Hyperthyroidism is a common condition where the thyroid gland becomes overactive and produces too much thyroid hormone.

Hypocalcaemia

Hypocalcaemia refers to low calcium levels in the blood. It is most commonly caused by either vitamin D deficiency or diseases of the parathyroid glands.

Hyponatraemia

Hyponatraemia means abnormally low levels of sodium (salt) in the bloodstream or a deficiency of sodium in the body.

Hypoparathyroidism

Hypoparathyroidism is a rare condition characterised by inadequate parathyroid hormone production from the parathyroid glands, resulting in low calcium levels in the bloodstream.

Hypophosphataemia

Hypophosphataemia is the term used to describe low levels of phosphate in the blood. It is most commonly caused by hyperparathyroidism and vitamin D deficiency.

Hypopituitarism

Hypopituitarism is the failure of production of one or more hormones from the pituitary gland.

Hypothyroidism

Hypothyroidism is a condition that develops when the thyroid gland is unable to produce enough thyroid hormones.

haemorrhage

sudden and rapid blood loss that occurs when a blood vessel is damaged.

heart failure

occurs when the heart becomes weak and struggles to pump blood around the body efficiently.

heart valve

flap of tissue in the heart that ensures blood flows in one direction only.

HIV

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is a virus that damages the cells in the immune system and weakens the ability to fight everyday infections and disease. HIV is transmitted through sexual intercourse, sharing needles and from mother to baby during pregnancy.

hydrocortisone

a synthetic (artificial) version of the hormone cortisol, usually taken in tablet form, to replace cortisol in the body.

hypertension

high blood pressure.

hypotension

low blood pressure.

hysterectomy

an operation to remove a woman's womb and ovaries, resulting in the menopause. A partial hysterectomy can be performed where the ovaries are preserved, which does not result in the menopause.

Hormones and conservation

The study of animal reproductive systems and regular monitoring of reproductive and stress hormones is important for conservation.

Hormones of pregnancy and labour

This article describes hormones that play an important role in pregnancy and labour.

Hormones and fetal growth

Growth of the fetus during pregnancy is regulated by a balance of hormones.

How do I find a patient support group?

Throughout the website we provide links to relevant patient groups, who may be able to provide advice and support

Hormones and eating

Hormones work to ensure that we consume the right amount of food we need to fuel our bodies each day. They are responsible for signalling to the brain when it’s time to start eating and also when to stop eating. When these signals don’t function properly, this can promote obesity.

Homeostasis

Hormones are responsible for key homeostatic processes including control of blood glucose levels and control of blood pressure.

Hormones in human reproduction

Hormones are the drivers of human reproduction, responsible for sexual development and controlling the menstrual cycle.

Hormonal control in humans

Hormones are chemical messengers. The endocrine system is one of two main communication systems in the body.

Hormones: The Inside Story - podcast

The Society for Endocrinology podcast revealing the truth about hormones and your health.

Hormones in the News: Oestrogen

Highly commended runner-up: Daniel Foran, Imperial College London

Hormones and Fracking

Highly commended runner-up: David Warren, University of Leicester

Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) in menopause

Highly commended runner-up: George Garratt, University of Leicester 

Hormones: The Inside Story

The new Society for Endocrinology podcast revealing the truth about hormones and your health.


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