the control of temperature in the body, which is managed by the hypothalamus in the brain.
a blood clot in a vein, which can lead to the vein becoming blocked, disrupting blood supply.
a fungal infection of the mouth, throat or vagina, characterised by white spots or a white discharge; can be treated easily with an anti-fungal medication.
removal of all or part of the thyroid gland through surgery. Total thyroidectomy is the removal of all of the thyroid gland and requires the patient to take lifelong thyroid hormone replacement medication.
a change in the DNA sequence (genetic code) of an individual, caused by a part of one chromosome moving to form part of another chromosome during cell division.
one-third of the length of a pregnancy, lasting approximately 3 months.
(TB) an infection caused by a bacterium, which can affect the whole body but particularly the lungs. TB is spread through the air in droplets – from sneezing or coughing.
The testes are two oval-shaped male reproductive glands that produce sperm and the hormone testosterone.
The thyroid gland is part of the endocrine system and produces thyroid hormones, which are important for metabolic health.
Testosterone is a hormone that is responsible for many of the physical characteristics specific to adult males. It plays a key role in reproduction and the maintenance of bone and muscle strength.
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) is produced by the pituitary gland. Its role is to regulate (by stimulating) the production of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland.
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone is produced by the hypothalamus. It plays an important role in the regulation of thyroid gland activity.
Thyroxine is the main hormone secreted into the bloodstream by the thyroid gland. It plays vital roles in metabolism, heart and muscle function, brain development, and maintenance of bones.
Triiodothyronine is a thyroid hormone that plays vital roles in the body's metabolic rate, heart and digestive functions, muscle control, brain development and function, and the maintenance of bones.
Tertiary hyperparathyroidism means excess production of parathyroid hormone that has escaped all normal body feedback controls and so persists even in cases where the initial cause (low blood calcium) has been corrected.
Thyroid cancer is the uncontrolled growth of cells in the thyroid gland which may spread to areas around the thyroid and to other parts of the body. Thyroid cancer can affect people of all ages. Most patients are cured by the treatments now available.
Thyroid eye disease is an autoimmune condition that affects the eyes causing swelling, inflammation and sometimes visual problems.
Thyrotoxicosis is a medical condition caused by an excessive amount of thyroid hormones in the bloodstream.
A toxic thyroid nodule refers to a single nodule in the thyroid gland that releases excessive thyroid hormones. The excess thyroid hormone production is termed ‘hyperthyroidism’ and can causes symptoms of thyrotoxicosis (i.e. due to excess thyroid hormones).
TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas are slow-growing benign pituitary tumours that produce thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and are a very rare cause of hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid).
Turner syndrome is a chromosomal disorder affecting the equivalent of one in 2,500 girls, which may lead to a number of features including short stature, failure to enter puberty and infertility.