Glossary

Browse through glands, hormones and endocrine conditions.
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Testes

The testes are two oval-shaped male reproductive glands that produce sperm and the hormone testosterone.

Thyroid gland

The thyroid gland is part of the endocrine system and produces thyroid hormones, which are important for metabolic health.

Testosterone

Testosterone is a hormone that is responsible for many of the physical characteristics specific to adult males. It plays a key role in reproduction and the maintenance of bone and muscle strength.

Thyroid stimulating hormone

Thyroid stimulating hormone is produced by the pituitary gland. Its role is to regulate the production of hormones by the thyroid gland.

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone is produced by the hypothalamus. It plays an important role in the regulation of thyroid gland activity.

Thyroxine

Thyroxine is the main hormone secreted into the bloodstream by the thyroid gland. It plays vital roles in digestion, heart and muscle function, brain development and maintenance of bones.

Triiodothyronine

Triiodothyronine is a thyroid hormone that plays vital roles in the body's metabolic rate, heart and digestive functions, muscle control, brain development and function, and the maintenance of bones.

Tertiary hyperparathyroidism

Tertiary hyperparathyroidism means excess production of parathyroid hormone that has escaped all normal body feedback controls and so persists even in cases where the initial cause (low blood calcium) has been corrected.

Thyroid cancer

Thyroid cancer is the uncontrolled growth of cells in the thyroid gland which may spread to areas around the thyroid and to other parts of the body. Thyroid cancer can affect people of all ages. Most patients are cured by the treatments now available.

Thyroid eye disease

Thyroid eye disease is an autoimmune condition that affects the eyes causing swelling, inflammation and sometimes visual problems.

Thyrotoxicosis

Thyrotoxicosis is a medical condition caused by an excessive amount of thyroid hormones in the bloodstream.

Toxic thyroid nodule

Toxic thyroid adenoma results in excessive thyroid hormone production from a single nodule in the thyroid gland. The excess thyroid hormone production can no longer be controlled by the body thereby resulting in hyperthyroidism.

TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma

TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas are slow-growing benign pituitary tumours that produce thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and are a very rare cause of hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid).

Turner syndrome

Turner syndrome is a chromosomal disorder affecting the equivalent of one in 2,500 girls, which may lead to a number of features including short stature, failure to enter puberty and infertility.

thermoregulation

the control of temperature in the body, which is managed by the hypothalamus in the brain.

thrombosis

a blood clot in a vein, which can lead to the vein becoming blocked, disrupting blood supply.

thrush

a fungal infection of the mouth, throat or vagina, characterised by white spots or a white discharge; can be treated easily with an anti-fungal medication.

thyroidectomy

removal of all or part of the thyroid gland through surgery. Total thyroidectomy is the removal of all of the thyroid gland and requires the patient to take lifelong thyroid hormone replacement medication.

translocation

a change in the DNA sequence (genetic code) of an individual, caused by a part of one chromosome moving to form part of another chromosome during cell division.

trimester

one-third of the length of a pregnancy, lasting approximately 3 months.

tuberculosis

(TB) an infection caused by a bacterium, which can affect the whole body but particularly the lungs. TB is spread through the air in droplets – from sneezing or coughing.

Topical issues

This section provides in depth information on issues relating to hormones and endocrine conditions. Here you can find feature articles on the effects of hormones on our bodies and in the world around us. You can also find information on the latest guidelines produced by the Society for Endocrinology and other relevant organisations.

The menstrual cycle

The menstrual cycle is governed by an interaction between reproductive hormones which prepares the endometrium (or womb) for pregnancy, or if no pregnancy occurs, the fall in progesterone leads to shedding of the endometrial lining and recommences the monthly cycle.

Topics

Endocrinology curriculum areas

Testing blood sugar level

Ages 10+ students can test the glucose level of various ‘blood’ samples and determine whether or not the person has eaten. They will then correct the blood sugar level by treating with different regulatory ‘hormones’.


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