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Corticotrophin-releasing hormone

Print Print | Email  Email article to a friend | Last updated: October 24, 2013

Corticotrophin-releasing hormone is the main element that drives the body’s response to stress.It is also present in diseases which cause inflammation. Too much or too little corticotrophin-releasing hormone can have a range of negative effects.

Alternative names for corticotrophin-releasing hormone

Corticotropin-releasing hormone; corticotrophin-releasing factor; corticotropin-releasing factor; corticoliberin; CRH; CRF.

What is corticotrophin-releasing hormone?

Corticotrophin-releasing hormone is secreted by the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus which, among other functions, releases hormones. Corticotrophin-releasing hormone has several important actions. Its main role in the body is as the central driver of the stress hormone system, known as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Corticotrophin-releasing hormone is given this name because it causes release of adrenocorticotropic hormone from the pituitary gland. Adrenocorticotropic hormone in turn travels in the bloodstream to the adrenal glands where it causes the secretion of the stress hormone cortisol.

Corticotrophin-releasing hormone also acts on many other areas within the brain where it suppresses appetite, increases anxiety and improves memory and selective attention.  Together, these effects co-ordinate behaviour to develop and fine tune the body’s response to a stressful experience.

Corticotrophin-releasing hormone is also produced throughout pregnancy in increasing amounts by the foetus and the placenta, with the effects of increasing cortisol. Ultimately, it is the high levels of corticotrophin-releasing hormone that, along with other hormones, are thought to start labour.

Finally, in smaller quantities, corticotrophin-releasing hormone is also made by certain white blood cells, where it stimulates swelling or tenderness known as inflammation, particularly of the gut.

How is corticotrophin-releasing hormone controlled?

Corticotrophin-releasing hormone secretion is stimulated by nervous activity within the brain. It follows a natural 24 hour rhythm in non-stressed circumstances, where it is highest at around 8am and lowest overnight. However, corticotrophin-releasing hormone can also be increased above the normal daily levels by a stressful experience, infection or even exercise. An increase in corticotrophin-releasing hormone leads to higher levels of the stress hormone cortisol which mobilises energy resources needed for dealing with the cause of the stress. High levels of stress hormones over a long period can have negative effects on the body. Because of this, cortisol blocks the continued release of corticotrophin-releasing hormone and switches off the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, which is known as a negative feedback loop.

Some effects of corticotrophin-releasing hormone in the brain can also be blocked by leptin, a hormone produced by fat tissue. This may be partly why corticotrophin-releasing hormone can control appetite.

What happens if I have too much corticotrophin-releasing hormone?

Abnormally high corticotrophin-releasing hormone levels are connected with a variety of diseases. Because it stimulates anxiety and suppresses appetite, too much corticotrophin-releasing hormone is suspected of causing nervous problems such as clinical depression, anxiety, sleep disturbances and anorexia nervosa.

In addition, high levels of corticotrophin-releasing hormone may also make certain inflammatory problems worse, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Initially this might seem unexpected because raised levels of corticotrophin-releasing hormone in the brain can lead to increased glucocorticoids production, and glucocorticoids have an anti-inflammatory effect. However, research has revealed that when high levels of corticotrophin-releasing hormone occur in tissues outside the brain, they can actually have a powerful inflammatory action. Increased corticotrophin-releasing hormone levels within the joints, skin or gut can therefore make these inflammatory conditions worse or even play a role in their development.

What happens if I have too little corticotrophin-releasing hormone?

Research has shown that people with Alzheimer’s disease have particularly low corticotrophin-releasing hormone levels. Some scientists also suspect that a lack of corticotrophin-releasing hormone might cause chronic fatigue syndrome, sometimes called myalgic encephalomyelitis, where sufferers have problems with sleep, memory and concentration. However, further research is needed into both these topics before this can be confirmed.

During pregnancy, low corticotrophin-releasing hormone production by the foetus or the placenta can result in miscarriage.

 

Reviewed: September 2012