Glossary

Browse through glands, hormones and endocrine conditions.
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Generic and branded drugs - what's in a name?

When we are looking for an over-the-counter or a prescribed medicine, we can choose whether to use a generic or a branded drug. But what exactly is the difference between them?

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide is a hormone produced by the small intestine in response to eating food. Its main action is to encourage the release of insulin into the bloodstream to control blood sugar levels.

Growth hormone-releasing hormone

Growth hormone-releasing hormone stimulates the secretion of growth hormone, an important regulator of growth, metabolism and body structure.

Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone

Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone is released from nerve cells in the brain. It controls the production of luteinising hormone and follicle stimulating hormone from the pituitary gland.

Gender identity disorder

Gender identity disorder is where a person is deeply unhappy with the gender they were born in, because it is different from the gender they feel they should be. This often leads to a desire to live in their preferred gender and change their appearance.

Glucagon-like peptide 1

Glucagon-like peptide 1 is a hormone produced in the gut and released in response to food. It causes reduced appetite and the release of insulin.

gastric bypass surgery

an operation used to treat morbid obesity where the stomach is reduced in size and the small intestine is shortened to reduce the amount of calories absorbed from food to aid weight loss.

Gestational diabetes

Gestational diabetes is development of high blood sugar (glucose) levels during pregnancy. Strict blood glucose control in pregnant women improves outcomes for both the mother and child.

Growth and height

The height a person reaches as an adult is a result of their genes as well as general health and nutrition during their years of growth. Normal growth is controlled by hormones such as growth hormone, sex hormones and thyroid hormones.

Graves' disease

Graves' disease is autoimmune thyroid disease. The body produces antibodies against the thyroid gland causing it to become overactive, resulting in increased thyroid hormone production and hyperthyroidism.

Growth hormone

Growth hormone is produced by the pituitary gland. It has many functions including maintaining normal body structure and metabolism.

Glucagonoma

A glucagonoma is a very rare tumour of the pancreas in which there is an increase in release of the hormone glucagon, causing a characteristic skin rash and raised blood sugar levels.

Gastrinoma

Gastrinomas are neuroendocrine tumours that are usually found in the first part of the small intestine or in the pancreas, which produce the hormone gastrin.

Gigantism

Gigantism is a rare condition of accelerated growth and increased height as a result of too much growth hormone secretion during childhood or adolescence. It is almost always the result of a growth hormone secreting pituitary tumour.

germ cell

an egg (or ovum) or sperm. These cells contain half the number of chromosomes as other cells (23 instead of 23 pairs in humans).

gestation

the period of time when a baby is developing inside its mother's womb. In humans, this period is nine months.

Glucagon

Glucagon is secreted to maintain glucose levels in the bloodstream when fasting and to raise very low glucose levels.

Gastrin

Gastrin is a hormone produced by the stomach, which stimulates the release of gastric acid.

Ghrelin

Ghrelin is produced by the stomach. Among its numerous functions, ghrelin increases appetite and stimulates the release of growth hormone.

Goitre

Goitre is a general term for an enlarged thyroid gland. Depending on the type of swelling, location, how it affects gland function and how long it has been present, goitre has various effects and is treated in a variety of different ways.


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