Glossary

Browse through glands, hormones and endocrine conditions.
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Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2a

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2a (MEN2a) is a rare inherited disease causing the development of tumours in the thyroid, adrenal and parathyroid glands.

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2b

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2b is a rare inherited disease causing the development of tumours in the thyroid, adrenal and parathyroid glands, and mucosal tumours.

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is a rare inherited disease, which can result in tumours in the pituitary and parathyroid glands, and pancreas.

Melanocyte-stimulating hormone

Melanocyte-stimulating hormone describes a group of hormones produced by the pituitary gland, hypothalamus and skin cells. It is important for protecting the skin from UV rays, development of pigmentation and control of appetite.

magnetic resonance imaging

(MRI) a type of radiography scan used to visualise parts of the body internally for diagnostic purposes. Electromagnetic energy is used to create an image.

Multinodular goitre

Goitre is a general term for an enlarged thyroid gland. Multinodular goitre is where the enlarged thyroid appears with a number of separate lumps (nodules) in the gland.

Male hypogonadism

Male hypogonadism is the result of deficiency of the male sex hormone testosterone. It leads to loss of sex drive and function, delayed puberty, osteoporosis, and there can also be associated failure of the testes to produce sperm.

mammary glands

tissue in female breasts that produces milk during lactation (breastfeeding).

metabolic rate

the rate at which energy is used by the body.

metabolism

the storage and break down of nutrients which can provide energy when required.

Melatonin

Melatonin is mainly produced by the pineal gland and, although it appears not to be essential for human physiology, it is known to have a range of different effects when taken as a medication.

Menopause

The menopause is the time when menstruation stops because the ovaries stop producing hormones and releasing eggs for fertilisation. This marks the end of a woman's reproductive years.

mutation

a spontaneous permanent change to the genetic code (DNA) that sometimes results in offspring having a different characteristic to parents or sometimes causes no noticeable effect at all.


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